Friday, October 5, 2012

Lesson VIII: كَانَ وأخواتها Kana Wa Akhwa-to-ha (Kana and its sisters)

They are 13 verbs:
 (كان، أصبح، أمسى، أضحى، بات، صار، ظل، ليس، مازال، ما بَرِحَ، ما فتئ، ما انْفَكَّ، مادام)
All of them are in the past.
These verbs are divided into two groups:
First Group: which is incomplete, and it is three:
 ليس، زال، فتئ
"لَيْسَ عَلَيْكَ هُدَاهُم"
"وَلاَ يَزَالُونَ مُخْتَلِفِينَ"
"تَاللهِ تَفْتَأُ تَذْكُرُ يُوسُفَ"

The Second Group: Which could come incomplete and also could be complete, and they are the 9 remained.

The Incomplete is the verb which is not enough to have mar-fou3, but also it has a noun ended with Dumma اسم مرفوع and a news ended with Fatha خبر منصوب. And the Perfect/ complete is the one which is sufficient to have مرفوع So it has a subject with Dumma فاعل مرفوع where the sentence is complete and not in need for anything else.

Examples of such Perfect / Completed verbs:

(1)        "وَإنْ كَانَ ذُو عُسْرَةٍ فَنَظْرَةٌ إِلَىَ مَيْسَرَةٍ"

(2)        "فَسُبْحَانَ اللهِ حِينَ تُمْسُونَ وَحِينَ تُصْبِحُونَ"

(3)        "ألاَ إلىَ اللهِ تَصِيرُ الأمُورُ"

(4)        "وإذْ قالَ مُوسَى لِفَتَاهُ لا أبْرَحُ"

(5)        "مَا دَامَتْ السَّمَواتُ والأرْضُ"

(6)        أضْحَى الجيشُ

(7)        ظَلَّ اليومُ = دَامَ ظِلُّهُ

(8)        اِنْفَكَّ القَيْدُ

(9)        بَاتَ الْقَوْمُ = نَزَلَ بِهِمُ المَبِيتُ ودَخَلَ عَلَيْهمُ الليلُ

To be continued ß

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