Thursday, November 10, 2011

LESSON 2 Adjectives اِسْمُ الصّفَةِ

In English we say: 'a  good  boy'; an Arab would  say: 'a boy  good'  In Arabic, qualified noun  comes first and the adjective  comes  next, e.g:   وَلَدٌ حَسَنٌ  a  good  boy,  رَجُلٌ جَمِيْلٌ a  handsome  man, بَيْتٌ كَبِيْرٌ a  big  house.
  An  adjective  agrees  with esm  اِسْمٌ  it  qualifies  in  definiteness.  If esm  اِسْمٌ  qualified  be nakera نَكِرَةٌ then  the  adjective  must  also  be  نَكِرَةٌ  as  بَيْتٌ كَبِيْرٌ  , رَجَلٌ جَمِيْلٌ   ,وَلَدٌ حَسَنٌ  etc.  If  اِسْمٌ  qualified  be  مَعْرِفَةٌ  then  the  adjective  must  also be مَعْرِفَةٌ such as: الوَلَدٌ الطيبٌ the  good  boy,   اَلرّجُلُ الْجَمِيْلُ  the  handsome  man,  اَلْبَيْتُ اَلْكَبِيْرُ  the  big house.  but  اَلْوَلَدُ حَسَنُ , وَلَدٌ اَلْحَسَنُ , رَجُلٌ اَلْجَمْيْلُ , بَيْتُ اَلْكَبِيْرٌ  اَلْبَيْتُ كَبِيرُetc.  are  Incorrect  for  the  adjectives  must  agree  in  definiteness  with  اِسْمٌ  they  qualify.  the  qualifying  adjective is  اَلصِّفَةُ  and  اِسْمُ qualified  is  اَلْمَوصُوف  to  repeat, اَلصِّفَةُ  must agree with اَلْمَوْصُوفُ  in definiteness.
   There are some qualities which are acquired and there are some qualities which are not acquired  but inherent. Qualities inherent are called  جَمِيْلٌ , حَسَنُ اَلصِّفَةُ الْمُشَبَّهِةُ  etc.

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