Wednesday, November 9, 2011

Grammar and Composition

In Arabic there are three  parts of speech أجْزاءُ الْكَلاَمِ. these are: noun esm اسم, verb (fe3l) فعل and particle (harf) حَرْفٌ . Arabic اِسْمٌ includes English nouns, pronouns adjectives, adverbs and some interjections. فِعْلُ is co -extensive with English verbs. All words besides اِسْمٌ and فِعْلٌ are حَرْفٌ particles.
اِسْمٌ may be either نَكِرَةٌ indefinete or مَعْرِفَةٌ definite. these are no definite and indefinite articles in Arabic. Indefiniteness of اِسْمٌ is indicated by تَنْوِيْنٌ nunation and definiteness is indicated by اَلْ prefixed to the word . كِتاَبٌ a book. قَلَمٌ a pen. اَلْكِتاَبُ the book اَلْقَلَمُ the pen. since اِسْمٌ cannot at the same time be نَكِرَةٌ and تَنْوِيْنٌ , مَعْرِفَةٌ and اَلْ do not co-exist. اَلْقَلَمٌ , اَلْكِتاَبٌetc. are incorrect. تَنْوِيْنٌ is also used with proper names as هِنْدٌ , زَيْدٌ etc.

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